Republic of Korea
대한민국 (大韓民國)

 Location

The Republic of Korea

flag.gif

       대한민국정부
Government of Korea

       한국      북한

2002 월드컵 명장면


The Korean Peninsula extends southward from the northeastern part of the Asian continent between 33 and 43 North Latitude and 124 and 132 degree East Longitude. The standard meridian of the peninsula is 135, nine hours ahead of GMT. The Amnokkang and Tuman-gang Rivers border both China and Russia to the north, and Japan is just across the East Sea. Since 1945, as a by-product of the Cold War, the peninsula has been divided at 38 North Latitude into the capitalist Republic of Korea, or South Korea, and the communist Democratic People's Republic of Korea, more commonly known as North Korea.


 Area and Topography

The total area of the peninsula is 221,607 km2, similar in size to that of U.K, New Zealand, or Romania. South Korea possesses 99,237 km2 or 45% of the total land mass, and North Korea 122,370 km2, the remaining 55%. About 70% of the land is mountainous, mainly to the north and east. Along the southern and western coasts the mountains descend gradually towards broad coastal plains. Most of the rivers have their tributaries on the north and east sides, and flow into the Yellow and South Seas. Concentrated for the most part off the southern coast are upwards of 3,000 islands of various sizes that provide scenery unparalleled in the world.

 


............................................동해물과
............................................백두산이
.....................................마르고닳도
..............................록하느님이보
..................우하사우리나라만세무
...........궁화삼천리화려강산대한
.........사람대한으로길이보전
...하세남산위에저소나무철
...갑을두른듯바람서리불
......변함은우리기상
.........일세무궁화삼
........천리화려강산대
......한사람대한으로길이
......보전하세가을하늘공활
...........한데높구름없이밝...........은 .
...............달은우리가슴일편단
.................심일세무궁화삼천
................리화려강산대한사
................람대한으로길이보전
................하세이기상과이맘으로
...............충성을다하여괴로우
.............나즐거우나나라사랑하
.............세무궁화삼천리화려
...........강산대한사람대한으
.............로길이보전

...........하세

 



 

 People and Population

    Koreans, like many other Asian peoples, are descendants of Mongolian Tungus stock. They differ from the neighboring Japanese and Chinese, however, in that Koreans are a homogeneous ethnic group with their own language, culture, and customs.
    Korean people are characterized by their generosity, warmth, and kindness, and are renowned as one of the hardest working people in the world.

      Population :
      -South Korea - 48.59 million (2004.7)
      -(North Korea - 22.69 million) (2004.7)
      -Annual growth rate : 0.90% (1995)
      -Urbanization rate : 78.5% (1995)
      -Average family size : 3.3 persons (1995)
      -Number of foreign residents : 110,028 (1995)

 The National Flag and Flower

flag.gif

The Korean flag is called t'aegukki. Its design symbolizes the principles of yin and yang in Oriental philosophy. The circle in the center of the flag is divided into two equal parts. The upper red section represents the positive cosmic forces of yang. Conversely, the lower blue section represents the negative cosmic forces of yin.
The two forces together embody the concepts of continual movement and balance and harmony that characterize the sphere of infinity. The circle is surrounded by four trigrams, one in each corner. Each trigram symbolizes one of the four universal elements : heaven(), earth(), fire(), and water().


The national flower of Korea is the Mugunghwa or Rose of Sharon. Everymug.gif year from June to October a profusion of Mugunhwa blossoms grace the entire country. Unlike most flowers, Mugunghwa is remarkably tenacious and is able to withstand both blight and insects. The flower's symbolic significance stems from Mugunghwa's root word, "Mugung," meaning immortality. This word accurately reflects the perseverance and determination of the Korean people that has been demonstrated throughout their long history.

     

     

    독립기념관 태극기 마당에서

 Capital and Major Cities

The capital city is Seoul, which is the political, cultural, commercial, financial, and educational center of Korea. Seoul also offers many tourist attractions.
(Populations : 10.3 million as of Dec. 1998)

Korea houses following 6 metropolitan cities and 9 provinces.


(as of '98.12)

City

Population
(1000)

Seoul city

10,321

Pusan city

3,843

Taegu city

2,504

Inch'on city

2,498

Kwangju city

1,342

Taejon city

1,346

Ulsan city

1,018

Kyonggi-do

8,712

Kangwon-do

1,555

Ch'ungchong-do

3,409

Cholla-do

4,187

Kyongsang-do

5,901

Cheju-do

535

한국

Korea

    면적: 99,200㎢. 한반도의 남쪽 지역. 산악지형으로 국토의 22%만이 경작이 가능함.
     

    인구:

    연도

    인구

    연증가율

    인구밀도

    1990

    43,520,000

    0.98%

    440명/㎢

    1995

    44,851,000

    0.80%

    452명/㎢

    1999

    46,860,000

     

     

    종족: 세계에서 인종적으로 단일민족 국가 중의 하나.
    한국인 99.8%. 역사가 오래된 문화국가.
    기타 0.2%. 미군과 중국인(24,000).
     

    문자해독율 92%. 공용어: 한국어.
     

    수도: 서울 10,918,000. 기타 주요도시: 부산 4,360,000; 대구 2,286,000; 인천 1,728,000; 광주 1,234,000; 대전 1,085,000. 도시화 47%.
     

    경제: 한국전쟁 후 급속도의 산업화와 성장을 이룩하였다. 동아시아의 4마리 "용"- 광범위한 부문에서 산업발전을 이룩한 강력한 수출지향형의 국가들-중 하나로 지칭되고 있다. 실업율 3%. 1인당 외채 $493. 1인당 소득 $5,569 (미국의 26%).
     

    정치: 수세기 동안 한국은 "은자(隱者)의 왕국"이었다. 한국인들의 생활태도와 정치는 일본 식민기간(1910-1945)과 러시아에 의한 국토분단기(1945-48) 및 극심했던 한국전쟁(1950-53)을 거치며 형성되었다. 1950년부터 1988년까지 대중의 저항에 따른 헌법개정과 더 개방적인 다당제 민주주의로 바뀌기까지 전직군인들이 이끄는 강력한 정부 아래 있었다. 32년만에 최초로 1992년 민선대통령이 선출되었다.
     

    종교: 완벽한 종교의 자유가 보장되고 있다. 정부는 기독교를 공산주의 위협에 대항하는 이념적 이데올로기로 여겨 기독교에 대해 우호적이다. 정부 통계와 종교단체마다 주장하는 신자 수에는 커다란 차이가 있다(괄호 안의 제시된 두 수치에 따라 각각 표시함). 처음 수치는 자료의 수치를 종합한 것이다.
    무종교/기타 20%.
    불교 27.7% (19.1%-47%). 15세기까지 강력했으며 전후 살아나고 있음.
    신흥종교 5.7% (0.8%-15%). 수백개의 신흥 혼합주의 종교로 대부분이 최근에 생김.
    무속신앙 10%. 몇몇은 공개적으로 한국 고대종교를 따르고 있다고 주장하지만 그 영향력은 폭넓다.
    유교 1.2% (1.0%-24.3%). 1910년까지 공식종교. 불교와 유교는 둘다 한국 문화에 깊은 영향을 끼쳤다.
    회교 0.06%. 바하이교 0.05%.
    기독교 35.3% (19.8%-43.6). 최대치 34.4%. 성장율 5.7%.
    개신교 27.1%. 성장율 6%.

    교단

    교회

    성인교인

    최대치교인

    장로교(합동)     
    장로교(통합)     
    감리교 (4)       
    하나님의 성회    
    한국복음교회     
    한국침례교총회   
    장로교(개혁)     
    예수한국성결교회
    한국장로교총회(보수)
    기독교장로회     
    한국하나님의성회
    한국장로교(고신)
    예언의하나님교회
    그리스도교회 연합
    예수그리스도 후기성도교회
    기타 (171)      

     4,561
     5,100
     3,507
       800
     1,623
     1,740
       901
       618
       972
     1,140
       450
     1,101
        88
      309
    166(1999년)
    15,075

      772,000
      830,000
      503,000
      400,000
      301,000
      176,661
      171,000
      121,408
      140,000
      126,000
       74,200
       71,500
       24,600
       56,800

    1,292,538

       1,930,596
       1,660,248
       1,048,000
       1,000,000
           601,801
          556,840
          427,943
          362,346
           310,111
          285,350
          185,480
          178,853
          123,223
          103,265
          70,000
      3,031,457

    계(188)

    37,985

    5,060,707

     11,805,773

     

     

     

     

    복음주의자. 인구의 21.1%

     

    3,818,000

     9,188,000

      오순절/카리스마틱 4.5%

     

    743,000

     1,860,000

 

 

북한

North Korea

    면적 123,000㎢. 한반도의 더 넓은 부분을 차지하고 있지만 남한보다 기후 조건은 더 열악하다.

    인구:

    연도

    인구

    연증가율

    인구밀도

    비  고

    1990

    22,937,000

    2.4%

    187명/㎢

     

    1995

    25,548,000

    2.2%

    209명/㎢

     

    2002

    22,222,000

    1.1%

     

    미국 CIA
    북한통계자료 발표
    (2002.9월)

     

    종족: 한국인 99.8%. 중국인 0.2%.

    문자해독율 91%. 공용어: 한국어.

    수도: 평양 2,355,000. 도시화 64%.

    경제: 상당히 공업화가 되었으며, 방대한 광물자원을 보유하고 있음. 중앙통제 사회주의 경제 체제로서 과중한 국방비 지출, 무리한 핵무기 개발, 중국과 구소련으로부터의 원조 중단 등으로 계속해서 쇠퇴하고 있다. 1993년까지 경제는 거의 붕괴 상태에 이르렀으며, 기본적인 식량만이 엄격하게 배급되고 있음. 1인당 외채 $296. 1인당 소득 $919 (미국의 4.3%).

    정치: 1910-45년까지 일본의 점령 아래 있었다. 당시 러시아의 주장에 따라 한국은 2차 대전 후 분리됨. 1948년 반도의 북부에는 공산정권이 들어섬. 1950년 북한이 남한을 침공하여 전쟁이 발발했으며, 1953년까지 지속됨. 핵무기 생산 능력을 갖고 있는 대규모의 북한 군대는 제2의 남침을 노리고 있다. 전세계에서 가장 압제적인 정권 가운데 하나로, 김일성과 그의 아들의 마르크스주의 왕조 건설을 위해 혼신의 노력을 기울이고 있다. 종종 통일에 대한 기미가 보이기는 하지만, 남북한 사이에 있는 요새화된 국경 지역은 전세계에서 가장 침투하기 힘든 곳으로 남아 있음.

    종교: 모든 종교가 잔혹하게 탄압되고 있음. 한국전쟁 동안과 그후 수천에 달하는 기독교인이 살해됨. 종교가입 상태가 제대로 알려져 있지 않아서 아래에 제시된 수치는 추정이다.

    무종교/무신론 68%.

    한국 종교 29.5%(샤마니즘, 유교).

    불교 1.7%.

    기독교 0.6-2%.아래의 수치는 대략 추정한 것임.

    개신교 0.4%

    교단

    교회

    성인교인

    최대치교인

    비밀 신자

     

    자료없음

     

    한국기독교연합

    2

     

    12,000

     

    자료없음

    92,000

    복음주의자. 인구의 0.36%

     

     

     

    로마 카톨릭 0.2%

    카톨릭협회

    1

     

    50,000

    예수그리스도 후기성도교회

    대북지원 계속

     

     

 


                       태극기 : 대한민국 국기

국기는 태극기()로서, 태극과 팔괘()를 중심으로 구성되었다. 태극은 우주 자연의 궁극적인 생성원리를 나타내는 것으로서, 적색은 존귀와 양()을 상징하고 청색은 희망과 음()을 나타낸다. 팔괘는 천지일월()·사시사방()을 의미하는 창조적인 우주관을 담고 있다. 따라서 태극기 전체로는 평화·통일·창조·광명·무궁을 상징한다. 한국에서 국기 제정 논의가 처음으로 거론된 것은 1876년(고종 13) 1월이었다. 이 해 일본과 처음으로 근대조약인 강화도조약을 맺을 때 일본 사신이 국기를 내건 데 대하여 당시 조선 사신은 국기가 없어서 내걸지 못하였다.

그리하여 국기를 만들자는 주장이 있었으나, 조선에서는 아직 국기의 필요성을 느끼지 못하여 지나쳐버렸다. 그 뒤 외국과의 교섭이 자주 있으면서 국기의 필요성을 느껴, 1881년 충청도관찰사 이종원()이 제출한 태극 팔괘의 도식()에 의해 비로소 국기를 정하였다. 그러나 실제 태극기를 국기로 사용하기는 1882년 8월 임오군란의 뒤처리를 위하여 박영효()가 일본에 특파대사로 갈 때 처음으로 내걸면서부터이고, 국내에서 국기로 제정하여 공포·사용한 것은 1883년부터이다.

'태극기()'라고 한다. 1883년(고종 20) 조선의 국기로 채택되고, 1948년부터 대한민국 국기로 사용되고 있다.

국기 제정 논의가 처음으로 거론된 것은 1876년(고종 13) 1월이다. 운요호사건[]을 계기로 한·일 간에 강화도조약 체결이 논의되는 동안 일본측은 "운요호에는 엄연히 일본의 국기가 게양되어 있었는데 왜 포격()을 가하였느냐?"고 트집을 잡았다. 그러나 조정의 인사들은 국기가 무슨 의미와 내용을 지니고 있는 것조차 몰랐다. 이것이 계기가 되어 국기 제정의 필요성이 활발하게 거론되기 시작하였다.

태극기의 효시에 대하여 종래에는 1882년 8월 9일 특명전권대사(使) 겸 수신사(使)인 박영효() 일행이 인천에서 일본 선박 메이지마루[]를 타고 도일할 때, 박영효가 태극사괘()를 창안하고 도안한 것이 정설로 알려졌다.

그러나 당시 일본에서 발행된 일간신문 《시사신보》에서 고종이 직접 도안을 하고 색깔까지 지정하였다는 보도를 한 사실이 밝혀졌다. 이에 따르면, 중국 청나라마건충()이 청나라의 국기를 본받아 조선의 국기를 만들 것을 강요하자, 이에 분개한 고종이 청나라의 국기를 따르지 않고 청색과 적색으로 이루어진 태극원과 사괘를 그려 국기로 정한다는 명을 내렸다고 한다. 박영효는 고종의 명을 받아 태극기를 그리는 역할을 하였을 뿐이라는 것이다.

태극기는 흰색 바탕에 태극문양과 건곤리감()의 4괘로 이루어져 있다. 흰
색 바탕은 밝음과 순수, 전통적으로 평화를 사랑하는 민족성을 나타내고 있다. 태극문양은 음과 양의 조화를 상징하며, 우주만물이 상호작용에 의해 생성·발전하는 자연의 진리를 형상화한 것이다. 4괘는 음과 양이 서로 변화·발전하는 모습을 효()의 조합을 통해 구체화한 것이다. 그 중 건은 우주만물 중에서 하늘을, 곤은 땅을, 감은 물을, 이는 불을 각각 상징한다.

이와 같이 만들어진 태극기는 그 후 널리 보급되었으나 도형의 통일성이 없어서 사괘와 태극양의()의 위치를 혼동하여 사용해오다가 1948년 정부수립을 계기로 국기의 도안과 규격이 통일되었다. 국기의 제작·게양·관리 등에 관해서는 '대한민국 국기에 관한 규정'에 의거, 시행되고 있다.

① 국기의 게양일과 시간: 국경일·국군의 날·현충일·국장기간·국민장일, 기타 정부가 지정하는 날, 지방자치단체·공공단체·각급학교 등은 연중 국기를 게양한다.

② 경축할 때: 깃봉과 기폭 사이를 떼지 않고 단다. 대문에 세울 때는 문 밖에서 보아 왼쪽에 곧게 세운다. 아파트에서는 밖을 향하여 베란다 오른쪽에 세운다.

③ 조의를 표할 때: 깃봉에서 기폭만큼 내려서 반기()를 단다. 깃대가 짧을 때는 깃대의 한중간에 단다.

④ 외국기와 같이 달 때: 태극기를 최우선의 위치에 단다. 태극기와 외국기 하나를 같이 세울 때는 좌우에 따로 세우거나 서로 엇갈리게 한다. 좌우에 따로 세울 때 태극기는 단상을 향하여 왼쪽에 세우고, 서로 엇갈리게 할 때는 태극기의 기폭은 단상을 향하여 왼쪽에 오게 하고 깃대는 밖으로 가게 한다. 세 나라 이상의 외국기와 함께 세울 때, 홀수인 경우는 태극기를 중앙에 달고, 외국기는 국명의 알파벳 순에 따라, 단상을 향해서 왼편이 둘째, 오른편이 셋째, 그 밖으로 왼편이 넷째, 오른편이 다섯째의 차례로 달며, 짝수인 경우는 태극기를 왼편 첫째로 하고, 외국기는 국명의 알파벳 순에 따라 오른쪽으로 차례차례 단다.

⑤ 기폭만 달 때: 바로 달 때는 건(≤)을 왼쪽 위로, 감(℃)을 오른쪽 위로 오게 한다. 늘여서 달 때는 건(≤)을 오른쪽 위로, 이(∞)를 왼쪽 위로 오게 한다. 확대해서 늘여달 때는 길이와 나비를 3:2의 비율로 하고, 실내 벽면이나 건물 정면 등에 깃면을 길이로만 늘여서 달 때는 늘인 부분을 깃면과 같은 흰색으로 한다. [두산백과사전]

 

Background

An independent Korean state or collection of states has existed almost continuously for several millennia. Between its initial unification in the 7th century - from three predecessor Korean states - until the 20th century, Korea existed as a single independent country. In 1905, following the Russo-Japanese War, Korea became a protectorate of imperial Japan, and in 1910 it was annexed as a colony. Korea regained its independence following Japan's surrender to the United States in 1945. After World War II, a Republic of Korea (ROK) was set up in the southern half of the Korean Peninsula while a Communist-style government was installed in the north (the DPRK). During the Korean War (1950-53), US troops and UN forces fought alongside soldiers from the ROK to defend South Korea from DPRK attacks supported by China and the Soviet Union. An armistice was signed in 1953, splitting the peninsula along a demilitarized zone at about the 38th parallel. Thereafter, South Korea achieved rapid economic growth with per capita income rising to roughly 14 times the level of North Korea. In 1993, KIM Young-sam became South Korea's first civilian president following 32 years of military rule. South Korea today is a fully functioning modern democracy. In June 2000, a historic first North-South summit took place between the South's President KIM Dae-jung and the North's leader KIM Jong Il. In October 2007, a second North-South summit took place between the South's President ROH Moo-hyun and the North Korean leader. Harsh rhetoric and unwillingness by North Korea to engage with President LEE Myung-bak following his February 2008 inauguration has strained inter-Korean relations.

Geography

Strategic location on Korea Strait

Location:

Eastern Asia, southern half of the Korean Peninsula bordering the Sea of Japan and the Yellow Sea

Geographic coordinates:

37 00 N, 127 30 E

Area:

total: 99,720 sq km land: 96,920 sq km water: 2,800 sq km

Size comparison: slightly larger than Indiana

Land Boundaries:

total: 238 km border countries: North Korea 238 km

Coastline:

2,413 km

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm; between 3 nm and 12 nm in the Korea Strait contiguous zone: 24 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm continental shelf: not specified

Climate:

temperate, with rainfall heavier in summer than winter

Terrain:

mostly hills and mountains; wide coastal plains in west and south

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Sea of Japan 0 m highest point: Halla-san 1,950 m

Natural resources:

coal, tungsten, graphite, molybdenum, lead, hydropower potential

Land use:

arable land: 16.58% permanent crops: 2.01% other: 81.41% (2005)

Irrigated land:

8,780 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:

occasional typhoons bring high winds and floods; low-level seismic activity common in southwest

Current Environment Issues:

air pollution in large cities; acid rain; water pollution from the discharge of sewage and industrial effluents; drift net fishing

International Environment Agreements:

party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

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 People

Population:

48,508,972 (July 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 25

Age structure:

0-14 years: 16.8% (male 4,278,581/female 3,887,516) 15-64 years: 72.3% (male 17,897,053/female 17,196,840) 65 years and over: 10.8% (male 2,104,589/female 3,144,393) (2009 est.)

Median age:

total: 37.3 years male: 36 years female: 38.5 years (2009 est.)

Population growth rate:

0.266% (2009 est.)

Birth rate:

8.93 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

Death rate:

5.94 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

Net migration rate:

-0.33 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2009 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.1 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female total population: 1 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 4.26 deaths/1,000 live births male: 4.49 deaths/1,000 live births female: 4.02 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 78.72 years male: 75.45 years female: 82.22 years (2009 est.)

Total fertility rate:

1.21 children born/woman (2009 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

less than 0.1% (2007 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

13,000 (2007 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

fewer than 500 (2007 est.)

Nationality:

noun: Korean(s) adjective: Korean

Ethnic groups:

homogeneous (except for about 20,000 Chinese)

Religions:

Christian 26.3% (Protestant 19.7%, Roman Catholic 6.6%), Buddhist 23.2%, other or unknown 1.3%, none 49.3% (1995 census)

Languages:

Korean, English widely taught in junior high and high school

Literacy:

definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 97.9% male: 99.2% female: 96.6% (2002)

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 Government

Country name:

conventional long form: Republic of Korea conventional short form: South Korea local long form: Taehan-min'guk local short form: Han'guk abbreviation: ROK

Government type:

republic

Capital:

name: Seoul geographic coordinates: 37 33 N, 126 59 E time difference: UTC+9 (14 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:

9 provinces (do, singular and plural) and 7 metropolitan cities (gwangyoksi, singular and plural) provinces: Cheju-do, Cholla-bukto (North Cholla), Cholla-namdo (South Cholla), Ch'ungch'ong-bukto (North Ch'ungch'ong), Ch'ungch'ong-namdo (South Ch'ungch'ong), Kangwon-do, Kyonggi-do, Kyongsang-bukto (North Kyongsang), Kyongsang-namdo (South Kyongsang) metropolitan cities: Inch'on-gwangyoksi, Kwangju-gwangyoksi, Pusan-gwangyoksi, Soul-t'ukpyolsi, Taegu-gwangyoksi, Taejon-gwangyoksi, Ulsan-gwangyoksi

Independence:

15 August 1945 (from Japan)

National holiday:

Liberation Day, 15 August (1945)

Constitution:

17 July 1948; note - amended or rewritten nine times; current constitution approved on 29 October 1987

Legal system:

combines elements of continental European civil law systems, Anglo-American law, and Chinese classical thought; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:

19 years of age; universal

Executive branch:

chief of state: President LEE Myung-bak (since 25 February 2008) head of government: Prime Minister CHUNG Un-chan (since 30 September 2009) cabinet: State Council appointed by the president on the prime minister's recommendation elections: president elected by popular vote for a single five-year term; election last held 19 December 2007 (next to be held in December 2012); prime minister appointed by president with consent of National Assembly election results: LEE Myung-bak elected president on 19 December 2007; percent of vote - LEE Myung-bak (GNP) 48.7%; CHUNG Dong-young (UNDP) 26.1%); LEE Hoi-chang (independent) 15.1; others 10.1%

Legislative branch:

unicameral National Assembly or Kukhoe (299 seats; 245 members elected in single-seat constituencies, 54 elected by proportional representation; to serve four-year terms) elections: last held 9 April 2008 (next to be held in April 2012) election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - GNP 172, UDP 83, LFP 20, Pro-Park Alliance 8, DLP 5, CKP 1, independents 9

Judicial branch:

Supreme Court (justices appointed by the president with consent of National Assembly); Constitutional Court (justices appointed by the president based partly on nominations by National Assembly and Chief Justice of the court)

Political parties and leaders:

Democratic Party or DP [CHUNG Sye-kyun] (formerly the United Democratic Party or UDP); Democratic Labor Party or DLP [KANG Ki-kap]; Grand National Party or GNP [CHUNG Mong-joon]; Liberty Forward Party or LFP [LEE Hoi-chang]; New Progressive Party or NPP [ROH Hoe-chan]; Pro-Park Alliance or PPA [SUH Choung-won]; Renewal Korea Party or RKP [SONG Yong-o]

Political pressure groups and leaders:

Federation of Korean Industries; Federation of Korean Trade Unions; Korean Confederation of Trade Unions; Korean National Council of Churches; Korean Traders Association; Korean Veterans' Association; National Council of Labor Unions; National Democratic Alliance of Korea; National Federation of Farmers' Associations; National Federation of Student Associations

International organization participation:

ADB, AfDB (nonregional member), APEC, APT, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, CICA, CP, EAS, EBRD, FAO, G-20, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAIA, MIGA, MINURSO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE (partner), Paris Club (associate), PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNMOGIP, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador HAN Duck-soo chancery: 2450 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 939-5600 FAX: [1] (202) 387-0205 consulate(s) general: Agana (Guam), Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Honolulu, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco, Seattle

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Kathleen STEPHENS embassy: 32 Sejongno, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-710 mailing address: US Embassy Seoul, APO AP 96205-5550 telephone: [82] (2) 397-4114 FAX: [82] (2) 738-8845

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 Economy

Since the 1960s, South Korea has achieved an incredible record of growth and global integration to become a high-tech industrialized economy. Four decades ago, GDP per capita was comparable with levels in the poorer countries of Africa and Asia. In 2004, South Korea joined the trillion dollar club of world economies, and currently is among the world's twenty largest economies. Initially, this success was achieved by a system of close government and business ties including directed credit and import restrictions. The government promoted the import of raw materials and technology at the expense of consumer goods, and encouraged savings and investment over consumption. The Asian financial crisis of 1997-98 exposed longstanding weaknesses in South Korea's development model including high debt/equity ratios and massive foreign borrowing. GDP plunged by 6.9% in 1998, then recovered by 9% in 1999-2000. Korea adopted numerous economic reforms following the crisis, including greater openness to foreign investment and imports. Growth moderated to about 4-5% annually between 2003 and 2007. With the global economic downturn in late 2008, South Korean GDP growth slowed to 2.2% in 2008 and declined 0.8% in 2009. In the third quarter of 2009, the economy began to recover, in large part due to export growth, low interest rates, and an expansionary fiscal policy. The South Korean economy's long term challenges include a rapidly aging population, inflexible labor market, and overdependence on manufacturing exports to drive economic growth.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

GDP (purchasing power parity): $1.343 trillion (2009 est.) $1.354 trillion (2008 est.) $1.325 trillion (2007 est.) note: data are in 2009 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):

GDP (official exchange rate): $800.3 billion (2009 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:

-0.8% (2009 est.) 2.2% (2008 est.) 5.1% (2007 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

GDP - per capita (PPP): $27,700 (2009 est.) $28,000 (2008 est.) $27,500 (2007 est.) note: data are in 2009 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: 3% industry: 39.4% services: 57.6% (2008 est.)

Labor force:

24.37 million (2009 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 7.2% industry: 25.1% services: 67.7% (2007)

Unemployment rate:

4.1% (2009 est.) 3.175% (2008 est.)

Population below poverty line:

15% (2003 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 2.7% highest 10%: 24.2% (2007)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:

31.3 (2007) 35.8 (2000)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.8% (2009 est.) 4.7% (2008 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):

Investment (gross fixed): 28.2% of GDP (2009 est.)

Budget:

revenues: $191.5 billion expenditures: $227.2 billion (2009 est.)

Public debt:

28% of GDP (2009 est.) 24.4% of GDP (2008 est.)

Agriculture - products:

rice, root crops, barley, vegetables, fruit; cattle, pigs, chickens, milk, eggs; fish

Industries:

electronics, telecommunications, automobile production, chemicals, shipbuilding, steel

Industrial production growth rate:

-7.5% (2009 est.)

Electricity - production:

440 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - consumption:

385.1 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - exports:

0 kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - imports:

0 kWh (2008 est.)

Oil - production:

30,440 bbl/day (2008 est.)

Oil - consumption:

2.175 million bbl/day (2008 est.)

Oil - exports:

800,000 bbl/day note: exports consist of oil derivatives (gasoline, light oil, and diesel), not crude oil (2008 est.)

Oil - imports:

2.982 million bbl/day (2008 est.)

Oil - proved reserves:

0 bbl

Natural gas - production:

443 million cu m (2008 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:

34.76 billion cu m (2008 est.)

Natural gas - exports:

0 cu m (2008 est.)

Natural gas - imports:

36.21 billion cu m (2008 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:

50 billion cu m (1 January 2008 est.)

Current account balance:

$30.38 billion (2009 est.) $-6.349 billion (2008 est.)

Exports:

$355.1 billion (2009 est.) $433.5 billion (2008 est.)

Exports - commodities:

semiconductors, wireless telecommunications equipment, motor vehicles, computers, steel, ships, petrochemicals

Exports - partners:

China 21.4%, US 10.9%, Japan 6.6%, Hong Kong 4.6% (2008)

Imports:

$313.4 billion (2009 est.) $427.4 billion (2008 est.)

Imports - commodities:

machinery, electronics and electronic equipment, oil, steel, transport equipment, organic chemicals, plastics

Imports - partners:

China 17.7%, Japan 14%, US 8.9%, Saudi Arabia 7.8%, UAE 4.4%, Australia 4.1% (2008)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$245.9 billion (31 December 2009 est.) $201.2 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Debt - external:

$333.6 billion (31 December 2009 est.) $381.1 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

$86 billion (31 December 2009 est.) $124.2 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

$NA (31 December 2009 est.) $74.6 billion (30 June 2008)

Market value of publicly traded shares:

$494.6 billion (31 December 2008) $1.124 trillion (31 December 2007) $835.2 billion (31 December 2006)

Exchange rates:

South Korean won (KRW) per US dollar - 1,296.88 (2009), 1,101.7 (2008), 929.2 (2007), 954.8 (2006), 1,024.1 (2005)

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 Communications

Telephones in use:

21.325 million (2008) country comparison to the world: 13

Cellular Phones in use:

45.607 million (2008)

Telephone system:

general assessment: excellent domestic and international services featuring rapid incorporation of new technologies domestic: fixed-line and mobile-cellular services wide available with a combined telephone subscribership of roughly 140 per 100 persons; rapid assimilation of a full range of telecommunications technologies leading to a boom in e-commerce international: country code - 82; numerous submarine cables provide links throughout Asia, Australia, the Middle East, Europe, and US; satellite earth stations - 66

Radio broadcast stations:

AM 96, FM 322, shortwave 1 (2008)

Television broadcast stations:

57 (plus 103 cable operators and 119 relay cable operators) (2008)

Internet country code:

.kr

Internet hosts:

301,270 (2009)

Internet users:

37.476 million (2008)

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 Transportation

Airports:

116 (2009) country comparison to the world: 53

Airports (paved runways):

total: 72 over 3,047 m: 3 2,438 to 3,047 m: 22 1,524 to 2,437 m: 13 914 to 1,523 m: 12 under 914 m: 22 (2009)

Airports (unpaved runways):

total: 44 914 to 1,523 m: 2 under 914 m: 42 (2009)

Heliports:

516 (2009)

Pipelines:

gas 1,423 km; refined products 827 km (2008)

Railways:

total: 3,381 km standard gauge: 3,381 km 1.435-m gauge (1,843 km electrified) (2008)

Roadways:

total: 103,029 km paved: 80,642 km (includes 3,367 km of expressways) unpaved: 22,387 km (2008)

Waterways:

1,608 km (most navigable only by small craft) (2008)

Merchant marine:

total: 812 by type: bulk carrier 212, cargo 226, carrier 2, chemical tanker 133, container 80, liquefied gas 33, passenger 5, passenger/cargo 26, petroleum tanker 61, refrigerated cargo 16, roll on/roll off 9, specialized tanker 4, vehicle carrier 5 foreign-owned: 31 (China 1, Japan 20, Norway 2, UK 1, US 7) registered in other countries: 363 (Belize 1, Cambodia 22, China 1, Cyprus 1, Honduras 6, Hong Kong 3, Kiribati 2, Liberia 3, Malta 2, Marshall Islands 10, Mongolia 1, Netherlands 1, Panama 303, Russia 1, Singapore 3, Tuvalu 1, unknown 2) (2008)

Ports and terminals:

Inch'on, P'ohang, Pusan, Ulsan

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 Military

 

Military branches:

Republic of Korea Army, Navy (includes Marine Corps), Air Force (2009)

Military service age and obligation:

20-30 years of age for compulsory military service, with middle school education required; conscript service obligation - less than 22 months (Army, Marines), approx. 25 months (Air Force) (to be reduced to 18 months beginning 2016); 18-26 years of age for voluntary military service; women, in service since 1950, admitted to 7 service branches, including infantry, but excluded from artillery, armor, anti-air, and chaplaincy corps; some 4,000 women serve as commissioned and noncommissioned officers, approx. 2.3% of all officers (2009)

Manpower available for military service:

males age 16-49: 13,691,809 females age 16-49: 13,029,859 (2008 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 10,991,263 females age 16-49: 10,356,604 (2009 est.)

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국가통계

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